Suntuubi-palvelussa käytetään evästeitä. Palvelua käyttämällä hyväksyt evästeiden käytön. Lue lisää. OK

Updated 25.7.2010  !!New: r-stems with commentary; io-stems


My intention is to publish here complete Proto-Norse paradigms for nominal inflections and other forms. The emphasis will be on reconstruction, although some references to inscriptions in "Old Runic" will be made.

To the best of my knowledge no nominal paradigms are available on the Internet (unlike some verb paradigms here), as opposed to the available material on Proto-Germanic, Gothic, Old English and Old Norse. Nevertheless data on available reconstructions of Proto-Germanic will be provided to a larger extent than elsewhere on the Internet, as well as the Gothic forms.

Proto-Norse (=Proto-Scandinavian =Proto-Nordic) is one of the North-West Germanic dialects, the one spoken in Scandinavia roughly 350-650 C.E. Earlier than this it is not meaningful to discern between Proto-Norse and North-West Germanic. In the 7th century the mutations leading to Old Scandinavian had already started. 

The forms are supplemented by younger forms in Old Pernesian, the reconstructed Old Swedish dialect spoken by late 13th century colonists settling the coast line of Eastern Nyland Province. This is essentially Old Swedish with some phonological archaisms and innovations common with Northern Scandinavia. These reconstructions are meant to support the diachronic presentation of this dialect, today called Östnyyländskå, further down this homepage.

For reconstructions references are made to:

Bammesberger (Alfred) 1990. Die Morphologie des urgermanischen Nomens.

Boutkan (Dirk) 1995. The Germanic 'Auslautsgesetze'

Haugen (Einar) 1982. Scandinavian Language Structures. A Comparative Historical Survey.

Ringe (Donald) 2006. From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic.

And Indo-European Documentation Center of the University of Texas.

All above sources use different ways of displayning nasalisation (Bammesberger upper case n, Boutkan capital N, Haugen a tilde ~, and Ringe a "hook" under the vowel). Bammesberger and Ringe uses a superscript line or tilde to mark Proto-Germanic "overlength" (trimoric vowels), which Boutkan does not believe in at all.

For Proto-Norse (Haugen) the concept of overlength is no longer needed and therefore the tilde is traditionally used for nasalisation.

Links on Proto-Norse:

Some verbs conjugated in Proto-Norse

Proto-Norse on Wikipedia

Brief intro to Proto-Norse

Reconstructed sample spoken

Rune News

About Runes (Arild Hauge's Runes)

Runes'n'ruins (rune stones and other runic inscriptions)

Nordiskt runnamnslexikon (in Swedish)

Norse Links

Grammar of Proto-Germanic 

The Old Scandinavian (Old Norse) Language