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r-stems

24.7.2010 Indo-European PGmc (Bammes-berger 1990) PGmc (Boutkan 1995) PGmc (Univ. Texas) PGmc (Ringe 2006) Proto-Norse (Haugen 1982) Proto-Norse (Boutkan 1995) Old Runic *Old Pernesian 'father', 'the brother' *Old Pernesian 'mother', 'the sister' ON Go. OE OHG
Nom.sg. -ēr/-ōr faðēr/swes(t)ōr faðēr brōþēr faðer/ swestar swestar fàþir, brṑþerinn mōþer, systeren faþer brōþar fæder fater
Voc.sg. -er brōþer mōðar/ swestar ?swestar
Acc.sg. -er-m faðeruN/ swestaruN faðerun brōþe mōðarũ faðurũ/ swesturũ fàþur, brṑþoren mōþor, systorena fǫþur brōþar fæder fater
Gen.sg. -r-os brōþraz/ brōþuraz faðras/ mōðurs faðrez brōþurz mōðraz faðurs/ mōðurs fàþur(s), brṑþor(s)ens mōþor(s), systorennar fǫþur brōþrs fæder(es)/ feadur fater(es)
Dat.sg. -r-ei brōþri mōðri faðri fǽþær/fàþur, brǿþrenom/brṑþornom mōþor, systorenne feþr brōþr fæder fater(e)
Loc.sg. -er-i faðri faðer(i)
Nom.pl. -er-es/-or-es faðeres fað(e)riz brōþriz? mōðriz faðriz dohtriz fǽþær, brǿþrener mǿþær, systrenar feþr brōþrjus fæder(as)/ mōdru fatera
Acc.pl. -e/or-ns faðrunz faðeruns faðruns brōþrunz mōðriz faðrun// faðriz fǽþær, brǿþrena mǿþær, systrenar feþr brōþruns fæder(as)/ fæderu fatera
Gen.pl. -r-om faðraN faðrōn brōþrǭ̅  mōðr faðrã fæ̀þra, brø̀þranna mǿþra, systranna feþra brōþrē fædera fatero
Dat.pl. -r-mus faðurmis fað(u)rmus faðrumis brōþrumaz mōðrumz faðrum fæ̀þrom, brø̀þromen mǿþrom, systromen feþrum brōþrum fæderum faterum
Nom. sing. It is controversial whether PGmc *-ēr could have resulted in ON -er/-ir. Some scholars would expect **-ar due to the fact that /ē/ > /ǣ/ in NWGmc.
On the other hand any other source for ON -er/-ir is hard to concieve. Elmer Antonsen f.ex. assumes full syncope and epenthetic vowel.
The matter is further confused by the Old Runic reading swestar on the Tune stone. It may be a vocative, a representative of expected *swestǣr or  
an archaic later representative of PGmc *swestōr all depending on the preferred approach to the development of the nom. sg. ending.
Acc. sing. One possible source for the ON oblique ending -or/-ur is acc.sg. *-arũ with raising of* -a- under influence of *. This requires that the mutation
of *-er- to *-ar- be explained, either under influence of *-r- or by analogy from *swestarũ.
Gen. sing. One possible source for the ON oblique ending -or/-ur is an IE acrostatic gen.sg. *-r̥s which could have spread from *méh2tr̥s or *bréh2tr̥s.
The chronology is complicated by the fact that *mātúrs must have had the accent shifted to the suffix before Verner's law, which makes
the form look rather anachronistic.
Dat. sing. The forms look like a contamination of the zero grade suffix of the dative and the short ending of the locative.
Nom.plur. Like in other consonant stems the ON form is introduced from the nominative. The transitional East-Norse inscription wintur on the Rök stone
is obscure regardless whether the word is interpreted as a u-stem as expected, or as an archaic consonant stem form as suggested by some.
Acc. plur. The Old Norse form is levelled from the nominative. This development is hardly older than the corresponding leveling in u-stems.
Gen. plur. The ending is problematic throughout all stem classes, the problems are not particular to r-stems
Dat. plur. The ending is problematic throughout all stem classes, the problems are not particular to r-stems

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