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Monosyllabic stems


25.4.2010 PIE PGmc (Bammes-berger 1990) PGmc (Boutkan 1995) PGmc (Univ. Texas) PGmc (Ringe 2006) Proto-Norse (Haugen 1982) Proto-Norse (Schalin) *Old Pernesian 'foot' 'the foot' (masc.) *Old Pernesian 'book', 'the book' (fem.) ON 'foot' ON 'night, book' Go. OE OS OHG
Nom. sing. -s fōz fōts fōts fōts? (fōs?), nahts? (nahs?) fōtz /fōtz/ ~ [fōts] [fōz] fṓtær, fṓtrinn bk, bcjen fótr nǭtt, bók baurgs fōt naht naht
Acc. sing. -m fōtun fōtuN fōtun fōtų, nahtų fōtũ fōtũ fṓt, fṓten bk, bcjena fót nǭtt, bók baurg fōt naht naht
Gen. sing. -es fōtez fōtes fōtez fōtis, nahtis fōtiz(-az) fōtiz, fōtōz ftar, ftans bkar, bkannar fótar nǽtr (náttar), bǿkr baurgs fōtes, bēc nahtes naht
Dat./Loc. sing. -ey/-y fōti fōti fōti fōti, nahti fōti fōti (fōtī?), bōk(i)?/bōkē? fø̀te, fø̀tenom bk, bcjenne fǿte nǭtt, bók baurg fēt naht naht
Nom. plur. -es fōtez fōtes fōtez fōtiz, nahtiz fōtiz fōtiz fǿtær, fǿtrenir bǿkær, bǿkrenar fǿtr nǽtr, bǿkr baurgs fēt naht naht
Acc. plur. -ns fōtunz fōtuns fōtunz fōtunz, nahtunz fōtiz fōtun (fōtiz) fǿtær, fǿtrena bǿkær, bǿkrenar fǿtr nǽtr, bǿkr baurgs fēt naht naht
Gen. plur. -óhom?, ōm?  fōtōn fōtaN fōtōn fōtǭ̅ , nahtǭ̅  fōtỗ fōtỗ fṑta, fṑtanna bṑka, bṑkanna fóta nátta, bóka baurge fōta nahto nahto
Dat. plur. -mis?, mos? fōtmiz fōtmus fōtmiz fōtumaz?, nahtumaz? fōtumz fōtumz fṑtom, fṑtomen bṑkom, bṑkomen fótum nǭttum, bókum baurgim fōtum nahtun nahtum
Nom. sing. The lengthened ō-grade originates from the nominative case, which in itself however has been subject to analogies. Sound laws would have given 
**fōs. Gothic fotus is analogically based on the accusative. Indeed NW Germanic could also represent PGmc **fotuz but unlike in Gothic, where this 
form triggered a complete u-stem paradigm, NW Germanic nom. ack. pl. maintais root stem forms. Therefore also the nom. sing. should have been
shaped on root stem, rather than u-stem models. Yet the sequence **-tz in the form **fotz (cf. Haugen) would before the syncope have been phono-
tactically isolated and probably unpronounciable. Thus a perceived underlying -z (> -R) would have surfaced in Norse only later, supported by analogy. 
The feminines have as a rule lost their nominative ending in Old Norse. Exceptions are kýr 'cow', sýr 'sow' and ǽr 'mother ewe'
Gen. sing. The original ending is seen in forms with i-umlaut like Old Norse and OE feminines. Other forms are analogical (Go. is ambiguous). Since West and 
North Germanic disagree on the masculine ending the best candidate for NW Germanic is the PGmc one. ON -ar is probably the u-stem ending.
Old Pernesian (OSw) had levelled the u-stem genitive into the feminines as well.
Dat. sing. Gothic and WG points to a short locative ending. ON masc. could represent the long, originally dative, ending but may rather be analogical (< u-stem).
Feminines display no i-umlaut and may already in NW Germanic have *-ai from i-stems, unless they continue an endingless IE locative.
Acc. plur. The Old Norse form is levelled from the nominative. This development is hardly older than the corresponding leveling in u-stems.
Gen. plur. The ending is problematic throughout all stem classes, the problems are not particular to root stems
Dat. plur. The ending is problematic throughout all stem classes, the problems are not particular to root stems

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